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ocean acidification

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oa action plan toolkit





OA Action Plan Toolkit

To facilitate the development of OA Action Plans, the OA Alliance has created this ACTION PLAN TOOLKIT as a guide. The OA Action Toolkit contains both regulatory and non-regulatory actions that members might consider when crafting their own OA Action. Not all OA Action plans will have the same framework or structure, as there is no “one- size fits all” approach.

chasing the future

Chasing the future: how will ocean change affect marine life?

From the Abstract: Understanding the potential consequences of rising ocean carbon levels and related ocean changes for marine life and ecosystems is a high priority for the ocean research community and marine resource management. Improvements in remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) have increased the efficiency of dive operations and enabled more complex measurements and experiments at great ocean depths. Recently, MBARI engineers and scientists developed an Upwelling Simulator, a lab-based aquarium control system that mimics ocean conditions during coastal upwelling. This system is programmable, allowing independent control of pH, oxygen, and temperature to enable experiments that examine the effects of present-day upwelling conditions.  

internal tide pool


"Internal tide pools" prolong kelp forest hypoxic events

From the Abstract: This study uses field observations within a single kelp bed in southern Monterey Bay, California, to evaluate the retention of cold, oxygen poor water within depressions in the rocky reef following relaxation of internal wave events. Just as tide pools in the rocky intertidal zone persist in depressions following the relaxation of surface waves and tides, “internal tide pools” persist in depressions in the subtidal reef following the relaxation of internal waves. 


Examining trade-offs in climate change responses in the context of Pacific Island fisheries

From the Abstract: Climate change poses significant and increasing risks for Pacific Island communities. Sea-level rise, coastal flooding, extreme and variable storm events, fish stock redistribution, coral bleaching, and declines in ecosystem health and productivity threaten the wellbeing, health, safety, and national sovereignty of Pacific Islanders, and small-scale fishers in particular. Fostering the response capacity of small-scale fishing communities will become increasingly important for the Pacific Islands. We argue that failure to adequately engage with trade-offs across human responses to climate change can potentially result in unintended consequences or lead to adverse outcomes for human vulnerability to climate change. 

us mexico


Harnessing Cross-border Resources to Confront Climate Change

From the Abstract: The US and Mexico share a common history in many areas, including language and culture. They face ecological changes due to the increased frequency and severity of droughts and rising energy demands; trends that entail economic costs for both nations and major implications for human wellbeing. We describe an ongoing effort by the Environment Working Group (EWG), created by The University of California’s UC-Mexico initiative in 2015, to promote binational research, teaching, and outreach collaborations on the implications of climate change for Mexico and California. 

purple sea urchin

Lethal and functional thresholds of hypoxia in two key benthic grazers

From the Abstract: Climate drivers can impact ecosystem structure and processes by changing the composition of organisms through lethal impacts, or by altering the ecological roles of organisms through sublethal physiological and behavioral impacts. We examined potential effects of upwelling-driven hypoxia on California Current kelp forests by assessing hypoxia impacts on 2 species having important functional roles in these ecosystems. We quantified dissolved oxygen (DO) thresholds for lethal and functional-role impacts in purple and red sea urchins. 


Species-specific responses of juvenile rockfish to elevated pCO2: from behavior to genomics

From the Abstract: In the California Current ecosystem, global climate change is predicted to trigger large-scale changes in ocean chemistry within this century. Ocean acidification—which occurs when increased levels of atmospheric CO2 dissolve into the ocean—is one of the biggest potential threats to marine life. Experiments were conducted simultaneously on two closely related species that both inhabit kelp forests, yet differ in early life history traits, to compare high-CO2 tolerance among species.